Safe-D: Safety through Disruption

E-Scooter Safety Assessment and Campus Deployment Planning


E-Scooters are a popular new service that provide last mile transportation, but there are reports of safety concerns for riders and impingement on other users of rights of way. Little formal research has been conducted on E-Scooter safety or the optimal approach to deployment to decrease nuisance issues. To address this, VTTI and Spin deployed a fleet of E-Scooters on the Virginia Tech campus through an exclusive, controlled research program. Through on-scooter data acquisition systems, fixed infrastructure cameras, anecdotal injury reports, and surveys, data was collected to assess safety impact as well as to understand beneficial and problematic user behaviors and patterns for subsequent countermeasure development and deployment recommendations. The resulting naturalistic dataset includes over 9,000 miles of riding data. Overall, the E-Scooter deployment on the Virginia Tech campus was safer than other reported deployments. The operational constraints that were put in place were largely effective, and with the additional results from this study, some additional constraints and expanded outreach programs may make future deployments even safer. The campus community largely considered the deployment of E-Scooters a clean alternative transportation option and viewed the service favorably.

Project Highlights

Coming Soon!

Final Report

VTTI 00-023 Final Report

EWD & T2 Products

Coming Soon!


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Research Investigators (PI*)

Mike Mollenhauer (VTTI/VT)*
Elizabeth White (VTTI/VT)
Sarah Robinson (VTTI/VT)
Will Vaughan (VTTI/VT)
Adam Novotny (Student-VTTI/VT)

Project Information

Start Date: 2019-06-03
End Date: 2023-01-31
Status: Complete
Grant Number: 69A3551747115
Total Funding: $467,126
Source Organization: Safe-D National UTC
Project Number: VTTI-00-023

Safe-D Theme Areas

Transportation as a Service
Big Data Analytics

Safe-D Application Areas

Vulnerable Users
Performance Measures
Planning for Safety
Operations and Design

More Information

UTC Project Information Form

Sponsor Organization

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology
University Transportation Centers Program
Department of Transportation
Washington, DC 20590 United States

Performing Organization

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
3500 Transportation Research Plaza
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061