Safe-D: Safety through Disruption

Micromobility Safety Regulation: Municipal Best Practices Review



As rented and shared micromobility options, e-scooters are new and potentially transformative app-based modes that promise to alleviate first mile/last mile mobility issues, congestion, and more. Yet their safe deployment has not yet been systematically understood or standardized by users, cities, or operators. As of December 2019, 1,500 people had been injured and 8 killed in e-scooter crashes. These devices are not yet regulated by a federal agency like the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and their use is not uniformly regulated at the municipal level. Some jurisdictions are imposing strict regulations across a region, regardless of density levels or urban design, while others have not imposed any rules at all. Without further understanding of what constitutes effective local regulation, the safe operation of these devices may not improve. This project explores what types of regulations municipalities and regions are imposing in an effort to address the safe deployment of these micromobility options.

Project Highlights

  • This project provides a detailed perspective on the kinds of legal and operational gaps that can arise when technology is deployed without the participation of safety regulators. Though much has been made of the chaotic nature of the “scoot now, regulate later” approach to e-scooter deployment, there have been no comprehensive efforts to analyze whether e-scooter regulations align with or lessen their risks. This project provides a basis for more conclusive research about that relationship.
  • This project provides a basis for more conclusive research about the safety effects of transferring liability through indemnification of parties by contract down to e-scooter riders.

Final Report

TTI 05-04 Final Report

EWD & T2 Products

One student, Ashley Fletcher, Juris Doctor from Texas A&M University School of Law worked on this project.


Stoeltje, Gretchen. (2024, March 26). Micromobility Regulation Best Practices Review: Scoot Now, Regulate Later. Webinar SafeD Virtual Webinar is available here. PDF of PowerPoint slides from Webinar available here.

Stoeltje, Gretchen (2024, January 8). Micromobility Regulation Best Practices Review: Scoot Now, Regulate Later:  [Conference presentation]. TRB 2024 Annual Meeting, Emerging Technology Law Committee, Washington DC, United States.

Research Investigators (PI*)

Gretchen Stoeltje (TTI/TAMU)*
Chris Simek (TTI/TAMU)
Johanna Zmud (TTI)
Tina S. Geiselbrecht (TTI)
Todd Hansen (TTI)
William Hwang
Ashley Fletcher (TAMU-TTI-Student)

Project Information

Start Date: 2020-09-01
End Date: 2023-01-13
Status: Completed
Grant Number: 69A3551747115
Total Funding: $120,500
Source Organization: Safe-D National UTC
Project Number: TTI-05-04

Safe-D Theme Areas

Transportation as a Service

Big Data Analytics

Safe-D Application Areas

Risk Assessment and Vulnerable Users

More Information

UTC Project Information Form

Sponsor Organization

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology
University Transportation Centers Program
Department of Transportation
Washington, DC 20590 United States

Performing Organization

Texas A&M University
Texas A&M Transportation Institute
3135 TAMU
College Station, Texas 77843-3135