Abstract Automated driving systems (ADS) are being developed faster than any point in history. There is a need to have an independent system to measure the safety of ADS across technologies and corporations. There are a variety of efforts around the world trying to estimate the impact of these systems on safety both prior to and after implementation. A missing piece that could allow for more cohesion and safer implementation is the knowledge of what type of data is needed for the refinement and further development of these systems. The purpose of this project is to determine the best method to … Measuring the Safety of ADS: How safe is safe enough?
Abstract Intersection related traffic crash and fatalities are one of the major concerns for road safety. In this project we aim to understand the major cause of conflicts at an intersection by studying the intricate interplay between all the roadway agents. We propose to use the current traffic camera systems to automatically process traffic video data. As manual annotation of video datasets is a very labor-intensive and costly process, A system that can process these traffic datasets automatically would strongly enhance the effectiveness of the analysis and enable new research questions to be addressed. Therefore, we propose to use computer … Real Time Risk Prediction at Signalized Intersection Using Graph Neural Network
Abstract Frequent vehicle collisions involving pedestrians or bicyclists indicate that there are opportunities to improve safe walking or biking. Concerns for child safety are among the strongest impediments to children walking or biking to school, but for some, walking or bicycling to school is a necessity due to financial or other circumstances. In fact, walking or biking to school is more than twice as common among students from low-income households than students from higher income households. Creating safe routes is one key mechanism to achieve social equity goals by providing safe opportunities to walk and bike regardless of a community’s … Evaluating the Safe Routes to School (SR2S) transportation program in socially vulnerable communities in San Diego County, California
Abstract During the last decade, non-motorized modes of transportation, including cycling and walking, have been spreading as they are considered economical, eco-friendly, and energy-efficient. With the expansion of active transportation, statistics show a significant increase in the number of fatalities. Between 2010 and 2019, there was a 36 percent increase in bicycle deaths in the United States. Moreover, despite the 41 percent drop in traffic volume in response to spring lockdowns caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, 697 bicyclists lost their lives in crashes in 2020, and California with 118 fatalities was the deadliest state for bicyclists. In this project, we … Developing a framework for prioritizing bicycle safety improvement projects using crowdsourced and image-based data
Abstract Improving safety during interactions between human drivers and automated vehicles requires an environment where autonomous vehicle software can interact with realistic human driving behavior. Generating this behavior has been challenging due to a lack of driver models that accurately reflect both vehicle kinematics and driver cognition. In this project, we propose to develop an active inference model of car-following behavior that will resolve these limitations. The model will be trained using the UC Berkeley INTERACTION dataset. After training, we will work with Waymo to validate the model on an internal dataset and, if necessary, implement a set of augmentations … Enhancing automated vehicle safety through testing with realistic driver models
Abstract A significant majority of the state of the art autonomous sensing and navigation technologies rely on good lane markings or detailed 3D maps of the environment and are more suited for urban communities. On the other hand, a large number of rural roads in the U.S. do not have lane markings and have irregular boundaries. These challenges are common to many small and rural communities (SRCs), defined as an incorporated city, town, or village with a population of less than 50,000. As of 2019, there are 18,723 SRCs in the US [1,2]; these communities are sparsely connected and cover … Technology to Ensure Equitable Access to Automated Vehicles for Rural Areas
Abstract Automated vehicle technologies vary from simple alerts to partially automated driving tasks that are increasingly available in today’s vehicles. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) seek to alert a driver to critical events (e.g., forward collision warning) or even intervene (e.g., emergency braking, lane-keeping steering) to prevent crashes. These technologies, however, are not available equally across the passenger vehicle fleet, nor is there standardization in how their uses and limitations are marketed to potential buyers or demonstrated at point of sale, including by increasingly popular online “dealerships” like Vroom and Carvana. The proliferation of ADAS has also outpaced crash scene … Critical Areas in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Safety: Point of Sale and Crash Reporting
Abstract Traffic crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. The conventional safety evaluation methods incorporate safety modeling to determine the risk scoring of the roadways and provide these risk maps in non-reproducible format. For roadway users, these risk maps are not usable in their daily roadway trips. On the other hand, popular navigation applications such as Google Maps and Apple Maps provide distance-based or travel time-based alternative routes with no real-time risk scoring. There is a need for a real-time navigation system that can provide data-driven decision on the safest path or route. Obtaining data from … Developing AI-driven Safe Navigation Tool
Abstract Roadway safety improvement in low-income and ethnically diverse communities in the United States has long been a major concern. This research is defined to addresses this issue by developing a data-driven approach and computational tools to quantify the equity issues in roadway safety. Particularly, we explore two important research questions: (1) What is the relationship between road infrastructure and communities’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and how can it be associated with traffic safety in low-income, ethnically diverse communities? and (2) What type of driver behaviors and characteristics affect the crash risks in underserved communities? This study employs data from … Building Equitable Safe Streets for All: Data-Driven Approach and Computational Tools
Abstract Humans operating motor vehicles are often required to engage in decision-making while under substantial cognitive loads imposed by the driving environment itself. Experiencing elevated emotions can influence driver decision-making in a way that increases the risk to the safety of the driver and system performance. Emotion regulation techniques (ERTs) can be used to improve driving safety and performance; however, these techniques can only be effective in an operational driving context if they impose minimal additional cognitive loading on the driver, thus avoiding issues with distraction and the increased workload that could further impact decision making, driving performance, and safety. … Evaluating Emotion Regulation Techniques for Supporting Driving Safety and Performance
Abstract Safety issues that stem from commercial truck parking shortages are a national concern. National hours-of-service (HOS) regulations limit drivers’ time on the road, in an attempt to increase safety by limiting fatigue; thereby, creating a need for drivers to locate safe, secure, and legal parking wherever they are when or before they hit their limits. In addition, the recent rule mandating the use of electronic logging devices (ELD) to electronically record a driver’s Record of Duty Status (RODS), replacing the HOS paper logbooks, further exacerbates drivers’ needs to find adequate parking. If drive time is exhausted where there … Connected Vehicle Information for Improving Safety Related to Unknown or Inadequate Truck Parking
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have significantly improved safety on today’s roadways but their impact may be limited by driver errors. Understanding and identifying these driver errors will require the integration of multi-domain datasets through predictive modeling and data integration approaches. The goals of this project are to identify relevant datasets for ADAS error prediction, evaluate modeling approaches for predicting driver errors during ADAS use, and developing models to proactively predict driver errors. Results from the project will be used to guide data collection system design at automakers and develop predictive modeling benchmarks. Project Highlights The project resulted … Identifying Deviations from Normal Driving Behavior
Abstract This project was inspired by a major gap identified in the literature pertaining to work zone safety monitoring systems that leverage advanced technologies for tracking workers, identifying hazardous situations, and alerting workers of danger. Existing systems target safety hazards that are either external to the work zone (e.g., accidents due to vehicular intrusions) or workers’ internal physical/physiological states (e.g., human-factor ergonomics such as improper or prolonged use of vibrating hand tools). This project presents a holistic approach in which visual and wearable sensor data are used for safety monitoring and alert generation to offer a practical mitigation strategy for … A Holistic Work Zone Safety Alert System through Automated Video and Smartphone Sensor Data Analysis
Abstract Distracted drivers are involved in approximately 4 million vehicle accidents each year in the U.S. (Dingus et al. 2016). These crashes result in many lives lost and billions of dollars in damages. This widespread issue has resulted in the adoption of regulations in the European Union that will require all new vehicles produced by mid-2022 to be equipped with driver monitoring systems (DMS; Gibbs, 2019). Although new vehicles would be required to incorporate driver monitoring, the optimal approach for determining/identifying inattention is still up for debate. This project leverages previous research, naturalistic databases, and input from recent literature to develop robust algorithms for assessing when drivers are inattentive to the driving task, while … Improving Methods to Measure Attentiveness through Driver Monitoring
Abstract COVID-19 has led to a reduction in vehicle miles traveled by motorized vehicles. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there may a shift to non-motorized modes. Getting more of the Virginia Tech community (including student, faculty, and staff) to walk, use the bus, carpool or ride bicycles for alternative transportation to decrease dependency on vehicle use and traffic around the VT campus and increase overall safety is a goal of the VT Alternative Transportation Department. With COVID-19 impacting carpools and the bus system due to limited capacity and possible fear of public transportation, and fear of injury related to alternative transportation … Using Health Behavior Theory and Relative Risk Information to Increase and Inform Use of Alternative Transportation
Abstract The increased popularity of rideshare scooters was recently observed due to their availability, accessibility, and low cost. Benefits to their use include reduced traffic congestion and more environmentally friendly alternative to motor vehicles. However, there are some concerns regarding the safety of riders and the impacts these vehicles have on those who share roads and sidewalks with them (e.g. 2.4 to 18 times more people per trip are injured on e-scooter sharing than on bicycle sharing). While non-collision-induced falls seem to be the main cause of scooter injuries (~60-80%), the collisions with vehicles and pedestrians represent the causes of … Simulation-based approach to investigate the electric scooter rider protection during traffic accidents. A step forward for safer e-scooters and for standardized national safety policies
Abstract Driver impairment, due to drowsiness or fatigue, has a significant impact on the safety of all road users. Assessing an impairment such as driver drowsiness, through the use of vehicle-based technology, continues to be an area of interest. Both the initial detection, as well as continued monitoring, of driver drowsiness have been the emphasis of vehicle-based Driver Monitoring Systems (DMS). Particularly, in-vehicle eye-tracking systems have been implemented, as a way of determining driver state. Specifically, when hands-free driving assistance features are engaged, measures such as the driver’s percentage of eye closure (PERCLOS) are being used to determine driver drowsiness. … Behavioral Indicators of Drowsy Driving: Active Search Mirror Checks
Abstract The goal of the proposed project is to systematically extract traffic safety information from multiple complex sources of flood monitoring such as remote sensing technologies, flow gages, and weather stations, which can support informed planning for transportation safety against flooding in future smart cities. Flooding poses a significant hazard to the moving vehicles and causes traffic disruption by placing water flow in the transportation network, resulting in sweeping vehicles away, injuries and loss of life of passengers. While different methods to continuously monitor flooding are available in the field of flood management, the collected data is too complex … Evaluation of transportation safety against flooding in disadvantaged communities
Alternative Title Assessment of Work Zone Pre-Crash Scenarios Using Crowdsourced Data Abstract Pavements play a vital role in the transportation infrastructure in the United States. Damage to public road transportation infrastructure causes roadways to fail to perform as intended and increases crash risks. Road damage must be detected quickly and accurately in order to maintain roads and effectively allocate repair money. In this study, four deep-learning object detection models were used for detecting five types of pavement damages using Nexar Dashcam images. The single-shot multi-box detector (SSD) and faster region-based convolutional neural networks (Faster R-CNN) object detection models using MobileNet … Detecting Pavement Distresses Using Crowdsourced Dashcam Camera Images
Abstract As rented and shared micromobility options, e-scooters are new and potentially transformative app-based modes that promise to alleviate first mile/last mile mobility issues, congestion, and more. Yet their safe deployment has not yet been systematically understood or standardized by users, cities, or operators. As of December 2019, 1,500 people had been injured and 8 killed in e-scooter crashes. These devices are not yet regulated by a federal agency like the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and their use is not uniformly regulated at the municipal level. Some jurisdictions are imposing … Micromobility Safety Regulation: Municipal Best Practices Review
Abstract This project supports a student in support of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 07-23 Access Management in the Vicinity of Interchanges and was led by Karen Dixon (TTI/TAMU)* and Maryam Shirinzadeh Dastgiri (TAMU). This project used a large volume of operational field data, micro-simulation data, and crash data to identify linkages between interchange design, driveway placement, and upstream major intersection location that affect corridor safety. The effort primarily focused on the diamond interchange configuration that is very common in the United States. The methods for determining corridor safety near interchanges can create challenges. Due to … Development of Analytic Method to Determine Weaving Patterns for Safety Analysis near Freeway Interchanges with Access Management Treatments (TTI/TAMU)
This study will leverage data collected from 50 participants who drove personally owned vehicles equipped with ADSs for 12 months. The work is expected to contribute to a greater understanding of the prevalence and safety consequences of ADS use on public roadways, as well as drivers’ perception of the early production ADS.
This project will deploy a fleet of e-scooters on the Virginia Tech campus through an exclusive, controlled research program which will collect data to assess safety impact, what behaviors are exhibited that may be beneficial or problematic, and ways in which kinematic and/or other data may be used to predict risky behavior and develop subsequent countermeasures.
Abstract This project encompasses four different activities to explore safety applications of emerging crowd-sourced data and datasets available from commercial aggregators. The first activity examines systems used to monitor and count pedestrian activity. Developing crash rates for these vulnerable users depends on knowing the volume of activity. Data from metropolitan planning organizations as well as commercial and community-based reports of bicycle and pedestrian activity will be assessed for accuracy by comparing them to manual counts. The second activity will examine waypoint travel pattern data from a commercial data aggregator to determine its applicability to safety analyses. The evaluation will … Exploring Crowdsourced Monitoring Data for Safety
This project seeks to examine whether traffic volume estimates developed from disruptive technologies such as cell phones, GPS/Bluetooth devices, and alternative data sources (e.g., demographic, socioeconomic, land use data) can be used confidently and accurately to support data-driven safety analysis (i.e., network screening) to meet the 2016 Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) Final Rule requirements.
This project will develop a framework which will bring together traditional and emerging data sources, and will be developed in such a way that it can be up- or down-scaled based on the available data sources of a study area. The exposure estimation output will then be used for crash assessment tailored to the needs of the study area.